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مُساهمةموضوع: دروس في اللغة الانجليزية رائعة   الثلاثاء مارس 22, 2011 5:37 pm

Parts of Speech

Words are of different kinds, depending on what purpose they are used.

There are 8 parts of speech, their names are:

The nounThe verb
The adjectiveThe pronoun
The adverbThe conjunction
The preposition The interjection


Each word in a sentence can be classified by its function as being one or the other of those eight parts of speech. And these words make up the parts of speech.
Parts of Speech

Words are of different kinds, depending on what purpose they are used.

There are 8 parts of speech, their names are:

The nounThe verb
The adjectiveThe pronoun
The adverbThe conjunction
The preposition The interjection


Each word in a sentence can be classified by its function as being one or the other of those eight parts of speech. And these words make up the parts of speech.
Parts of Speech

1. Nouns
A noun is the name of a person , animal, place or thing.
The English word "noun" comes from the Latin word "nomen", meaning "name". So, the function of a noun is to name someone or something.

A) Countable & Uncountablenouns B) Different kinds of nouns

A) Countable & Uncountable nouns
A noun can be countable or uncountable.
1. Countable nouns are nouns that can be counted and have plural form.
A song songs
An umbrella umbrellas


a / an with singular countable nouns
a cup an accident a coat
Some / any few / many with plural countable nouns

Do you speakany foreign ********s.
I needsomeapples.
Can you wait fewmoments, please?
Do you havemanyfriends?
Parts of Speech

2. Uncountable nouns are nouns that can not be counted normally and do not have a plural form.
I like milk. I eat rice.

Milk, Sugar, Soap, Meat.

Some uncountable nounscan be counted by naming the
container / Shape / Weight in which they are found.

A bottle of milk. A bag of rice. A bar of soap. A tin of meat.

Some uncountable nouns can be counted by using a…. of (uncountable nouns) a piece of,a bit of, …

A piece of advice. A bit of information.
A drop of water. A game of chess.

Some / any / Little / Much + uncountable nouns
Some sugar. Any juice. Little work. Much time.


B) Different kinds of nouns:
1. Proper nouns
Hani, Ali, Europe, Amman

The word "proper" comes from the Latin word "Proprius" meaning "own".
Proper nouns, when written, begin with a Capital letter.

2. Abstract nouns
Mercy, Justice

Abstract nouns, name non – material thing.
Parts of Speech

3. Common nouns
Father, Mother, Car, Pencil

Common nouns, name members of, or items in a whole class of
people or things.

4. Collective nouns
Croud, Fleet, Forest, team, Library

Collective nouns, name groups of people or animals or collections of things.
Collective nouns can be singular or plural.
A crowd of people, a herd of goats, a bunch of bananas.

Domestic animals are called he or she to distinguish between male and female.

I have a cat and she eats a lot.
I have a dog and he sleeps all the time.

When the collective noun is the subject of the sentence, the verb is usually singular.
A flock of sheep is very noisy.
A team of horses was pulling old carriage.

When the individual members of the collective group are important, the verb is plural.
The police are protecting the town.
The government are fighting poverty.
Parts of Speech

Adjective
A word functions as an adjective, when it tells us more about the person or thing named by a noun or reserved to by a pronoun.

Short, Yellow, Good

An adjective is a describing word, that is it describes (or qualifies) the noun in a sentence.

It is a beautiful day.
This is a bad egg.

Adjective go with nouns
1) Adj
noun
It is a nice
day today.
Nice day
This is an old
bridge
old bridge
I like Egyptian
food
Egyptian food

2) Noun
Adj
The dress is
red
They work in a
modern house
Parts of Speech

The Adverb
An adverb is a word which qualifies a verb, adjective or another adverb
Example: This is a very good book.

Here the word ‘very’ tells us how good the book is. It, therefore, modifies the adjective ‘good’ and is therefore an adverb.

Adverbs tell us how something happens.
The car stopped suddenly.
It's raining heavily.

Adverbs tell us how somebody does something.
I went to bed early.
She played badly.
We can make adverbs with an adjective + ly:
Adj + ly + adverb
Bad ًBadly
Bright ً Brightly
Quick ً Quickly

Good / Well
Her English is very good. (Adj)
She speaks English very well. (Adverb)

The Preposition
Preposition means ‘placed before’, therefore a preposition is a word usually placed before a noun. It shows the relation of the noun before which it is placed to some other person or thing.
Example: The girl is in the classroom.
In this sentence ‘in’ shows us the relation between the girl and the classroom.
Prepositions are used with nouns or pronouns to make a phrase.
at five o'clock.
behind me.
Prepositions mainly express time or place.
Over, under, till, above, since…
Many prepositions used as adverbs.
Go in and look around.
Prepositions:
About: "About" has the meaning:
a. Concerning:
I want you to tell me about your work.
I shall be thinking about you all the time you are away.
b. Approximately:
I'll see you at about six o'clock.

c. In various directions or places:
You will be warm enough if you move about.

d. Happen (with come):
I hear that Ahmad has broken his leg, how did that come about?

Above:
a. Has often the same meaning as over and can be contrasted with below:
In Mr. Rami's room there is a clock above (over) the fireplace.
The Preposition
Above:
a. Has often the same meaning as over and can be contrasted with below:
In Mr. Rami's room there is a clock above (over) the fireplace.
b. Mentioned earlier:

c. Most important of:
Think about what I have told you, but above all, don't breathe a word of it to Henry.

Across: "Across" means "From one side to other".
The child ran across the road.
Run across can also mean "meet unexpectedly":
I ran across our friend Smith yesterday.

After: "After" is generally used to denote time or order.
I'll see you after dinner.

To look after: to care for.
If my wife goes away for a week, who’s going to look after me and the children?

After all: In spite of what you thought:
You can see I was right after all.

Against: "Against" expresses the idea of:
a. Opposition:
He who is not for us in against us.

b. Support:
He rested his bicycle against the wall.

c. To avoid the danger from:
My house is insured against fire.
The Preposition
Among (amongst) expresses:
a. Position in the midst of:
You can see my house among the trees.

b. Included in:
Maha is among (one of ) the world's greatest poets.

c. Sharing:
The sweets are to be shared among the five children.

At: "At" is used mainly to denote a place or point of time:
I'll see you at the station at for o'clock.

Before: "Before" generally expresses:
1. Time (contrasted with after):
Come and see me tomorrow any time before five o'clock.

2. Position, order:
She sang before a large audience.
Behind: "Behind" express position:
1. In Space:
The garage is behind the house.

2. In time:
The train is behind time.

Below: "Below" generally has the meaning 'under':
The temperature is below freezing point.

Below contrasted with 'above':
To keep warm you need blankets above and below you.
Beside: "Beside" = 'by the side of', 'near':
Go and sit beside Maher.

Besides: In addition:
There are many others besides me who disagree with what you say.

Besides (as an adverb) can also have the meaning 'moreover':
I don't want to go for a walk, I'm tired, and besides, it's beginning to rain.
The Preposition
Beyond: "Beyond" has the meanings 'on the other, further, side, further on, more than':
The woods go for about two miles beyond the river.
He lives in a small castle, about four miles beyond Oxford.
He loves her beyond measure.

By: "By" is used with a great many meanings, it expresses:
a. Nearness:
Come and sit by me.

b. Direction or movement:
We came to Damascus by way of Amman and Irbid.

c. Agency:
The book was written by Dickens.

d. Time:
We traveled by night.

e. Measurement:
These goods are sold by weight.
He is older than I' am by ten years.

Down: "Down" expresses movement from a higher to a lower position:
They walked down the hill.
The sun goes down in the west.

Except: "Except" (for), excepting means 'not including' , 'apart from':
We have lessons every day except (excepting) Friday and Saturday.

The Preposition
For: "For" has a great many meanings:
1. Space of time or distance:
I' am staying here for a week.

2. Purpose, aim, intention:
We come here for Arabic lessons.

3. Amount:
The house was sold for 6.000.
4. Direction:
Which is the train for Syria.

5. Point of time:
The meeting is arranged for five o'clock.

6. Cause:
I couldn't see anything for smoke.

7. Exchange:
I'll give you my watch for your camera.

8. Advantage (or disadvantage):
This holiday has been good for you, too much work is bad for you.

From:
The principal meanings of from are:
1. A motion away, departure, removal:
He rose from his chair.

2. A starting point, place of origin:
He read from page 15 to page 23.

3. Cause:
She is suffering from a bad headache.

4. Separation:
He is far away from home and wife and children.
The Preposition
In:
The main uses of in are to express:
1. Position or place:
The are twenty students in this room.
I was right in the middle of the crowd.
He lives in London.

Or, as an adverb:
Has the nine o'clock train com in yet?
Go in, don't wait outside.
2. Circumstances or condition:
In prison. In the dark. In good health.
In danger.

As an adverb:
Is the fire in or has it gone out?
3. Dress, covering:
She was dressed in silk.
4. Time:
In the morning . In the afternoon.
I began work here in January in the year 1940.
Into:
Of expresses
1. One of the possessive (genitive) forms:
The tail of the dog. The love of God.
The tower of London.

2. Origin or authorship:
He was a child of poor parents. The poems of Milton.
3. Measure, Quantity:
A yard of cloth. A pound of sugar. Some of that Cake.
Parts of Speech

Verbs
A verb is an action word.
It says something about the person or thing in a sentence, that is, it tells us what is happening to the subject.

In the predicate of every sentence, one word (or group of words) plays the essential part in telling us something about the subject of the sentence.

The word "Verb" comes from the Latin word "Verbuny" meaning
"The word".
So
The verb is "the word" in the predicate.

A predicate of a sentence can be solely one word "a verb".

Action Words and being words
A verb denotes action or beings. Its function in a sentence is to tell us what the subject does or is.

Action words :
Eat, swim…

Being words :
Is, were, because

Multiple word verbs :
Verbs may consist of more than one word.
We shall accept their offer.
I may go to the school.
The car has been broken.

Parts of Speech

Pronoun
A noun is the name of a person, animal, place or thing.
A word used in place of a noun is known as a pronoun.
Rita is my sister, She is three years older to me.

In the example, the noun Rita has been replaced by the "She" in the second sentence, which is the pronoun.

In sentences: Pronouns do the same work as nouns. They identify people and things.

Some nouns are words for things:
Table, Train, Window, Stars…
A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.

"It" is for a thing – singular –
Where is the table? It is in the Kitchen.

"They" is for all things – Plural –
Where is the stars? They are in the sky.

Some nouns are words for people:
Teacher, Father, Student, Girl…

A pronoun is word used instead of a noun.

"He" is for a male person.
Where is Hani? He is near the door.

"She" is for a female person.
Where is Nur? She is in the office.

"They" is for all persons.
Where are the girls? They are in the school.
Parts of Speech


Singular
Plural
Person
Persons or people


What …? Expects a thing for the answer.

What is this? It is a chair.
What are those? They are apples.
Who …? Expects a person for the answer.
Who is in the bed? The girl is.
Who are those? They are Ali and Laila.
Conjunction

A conjunction is a word that joins two sentences, phrases or even words.

Conjunction is derived from the Latin 'coniunctus' Con- from cum-, 'with' and iungere, 'to join'

The most common conjunctions are 'and' and 'but' but others give variety and interest to lengthier passages.

Some examples:
or, therefore , So, though, unless Because although, therefore, before, while, after, as, since, that, for, until, if, than

The conjunction "and" often shows a state of equality between the two things it links together.
"Ali and Rami are my friends"

The conjunction "but" is usually used to show a definite contrast.
He is young, but very clever.
Here the word ‘but’ joins together the two sentences: ‘He is young’ and ‘He is clever’.
The conjunctions "therefore" and "thus" show cause and effect.

Sometimes an entire phrase of words can serve as a conjunction.
"On the other hand" , "in addition"
Also, some conjunctions known as , Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs -- you use them to link *****alent sentence elements. like "either/or," "neither/nor," "both/and," and "not only/but also."

The conjunctions"but'' and "for'' are also used as prepositions.
Interjection
The interjection is always a spoken word that expresses some suddenfeeling or an emotion & it has no grammatical connection.

Interjections are short exclamations like:
Hi! Um! Ah! Oh!, Gosh! Wow! Ouch! Hey! "Great!" "Hurray!"


We use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing.
The word 'interjection' arises from the Latin 'inter' meaning 'between' and 'iacere', to cast.
"Wow, that's a big wheel of cheese!"

Here are some interjections with examples:

Example
Meaning
"Ah, now I understand."
expressing realization
"Ohdear! Does it hurt?"
expressing pity
"Ah! I've won!"
expressing surprise
"What do youthink of that, eh?"
expressing enquiry
"Let's go,eh?"
inviting agreement
"Hello! My car's gone!"
expressing surprise
"Ouch! That hurts!"
expressing pain
"Shall we go?""Uh-huh."
expressing agreement
"Well, what did he say?"
introducing a remark
"Hmm. I'm not so sure."
expressing hesitation, doubt or disagreement
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